A manager or leader has five main ways of getting something done: telling, selling, testing, consulting, and co-creating.

The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook, written by Peter Senge, Art Kleiner, Charlotte Roberts, Rick Ross and Bryan J. Smith, first appeared in print in 1994. The chapter contributed by Bryan Smith was titled Building Shared Vision, and it featured the Tell–Sell–Test–Consult–Co-create model shown in the graphic below.

Although no credit is given, the model is clearly inspired by Robert Tannenbaum and Warren H. Schmidts classic 1958 Harvard Business Review article, How to choose a leadership pattern.

The Tell–Sell–Test–Consult–Co-create model


What the leader does: Give an instruction.

This is the plan. Get going.


What the leader does: Seeks buy-in.

This is the plan, and this is how you will benefit

Telling and Selling will be used to activate whatever decisions were made as a result of earlier Testing and Consulting work.


What the leader does: Invites response.

This is the plan. Tell me what you think about it and we will consider incorporating your ideas.


What the leader does: Requests assistance.

Please help me create the plan.


What the leader does: Collaborates.

We’ve got a blank sheet of paper. Lets create the plan together.

This is likely to be the most effective method to adopt when initiating a programme of enterprise-wide change work.

“In the old hierarchical model you could just tell people what the vision was. That wont work now. We have to create a platform that is meaningful for each person. Leaders cant do it alone. They must do it in collaboration with their leadership team, and if theyre doing it really well, with the entire organization. The vision has to be collaboratively created and open in its architecture so people can connect with it.”

Doug Conant, former President and CEO, Campbell Soup, in an interview with Jess Lyn Stoner | view source.

Further reading

The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook: Strategies for Building a Learning Organization, by Peter Senge, Art Kleiner, Charlotte Roberts, Rick Ross and Bryan Smith

How to choose a leadership pattern, by Robert Tannenbaum and Warren H. Schmidt, in Harvard Business Review, MarchApril 1958 issue

Rich Co-creation, by Jack Martin Leith